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On his recovery he became a monk and lived in Gandhara and Kashmir, not returning to China until 790 Read the bibliography. Only an abridged version of his narrative survives, known especially from Yaqut's geographical dictionary. Although the account we have is not the original report, it has great value, since Ibn Fadlan "possessed extraordinary powers of observation." (Canard). Traveled with Genghis Khan and his army to Central Asia in 1219. A Dominican and papal envoy to the Mongols, traveled from the Holy Land to vicinity of Tabriz (N. On the second, accompanied by several others including his brother William, went much farther (his route is not well documented) to the inner Asian dominions of the Mongols, where he arrived during the regency of Oghul Qaimish, the widow of Khan Gyg. Bretschneider indicates the "narrative is of little importance." Read the bibliography. The route went through the Altai and Tienshan mountains, the southern parts of today's Kazakhstan, through Kyrgyzstan, to Samarkand and then down into NE Iran and Afghanistan.The account is often best known for its rather lurid but valuable description of a Viking (Rus) funeral on the Volga; this served as the inspiration for a best-seller by the novelist Michael Crichton, Eaters of the Dead. Journeyed to Altai, Ili valley, Talas, Samarkand, Buhara. We know of his journeys from summaries in Matthew Paris's Chronica Majora. He was accompanied by Li Chi ch'ang, who wrote the Hsi Yu Chi, a rather detailed diary of the journey; it was published with an introduction by Sun si in 1228 and included in the Tao tsang tsi yao. Dominican envoys of the Pope to the Mongols, who went from the Levant into the southern Caucasus and returned (accompanied by Mongol envoys) via Tabriz, Mosul, Allepo, Antioch and Acre. John of Plano Carpini (Pian del Carpine) and Benedict the Pole.In many instances, the choice of what to include in the bibliography reflects our perception of the relative accessibility of the item for those who may not have access to a major research library.Works that have received wide attention (whether or not they merit it) may be cited precisely because they are "well known." While we hope that the individual bibliographical references are full and accurate, we are not attempting here to provide the kind of comprehensive coverage that specialists would require.Where he is discussing that which he actually saw, Friar John's account ("History of the Mongols"/Historia Mongalorum) is "the first direct authentic description of Asia" (Olschki) and one of the most perceptive and detailed accounts we have of the Mongols in the thirteenth century.Considering his European Christian perspective, it is surprisingly unbiased. William (Guillaume/Willem) of Rubruck (Ruysbroeck). Franciscan missionary from Flanders who traveled through the Black Sea and the territories of the Golden Horde to the court of the Great Khan Mngke at Karakorum.Each entry includes selected bibliographical references (linked from a separate file).Where they exist, English or other Western language texts or translations are cited for the original travel accounts (designated as "primary sources").
His travel account Mu tianzi zhuan, written in the 5th-4th century BC, is the first known travel book on the Silk Road. Chinese general and envoy credited with opening the Silk Road after his mission from the Han Emperor Wudi to recruit the Yueh-chih people to form an alliance against the Xiongnu. Anonymous author of the Periplus of the Erythraen (=Red) Sea. His book had been lost since Tang dynasty until an incomplete copy (14 pages, ~6000 words) was miraculously discovered by the French explorer, Paul Pelliot at Dunhuang cave in 1908. Chinese soldier defeated and prisoned by the Arab at the famous battle of Talas in 751.
Once we are somewhat farther along in our coverage, we will post a list of additional individuals whom we intend to include; at that point we will be pleased to receive suggestions about significant omissions.
We have chosen primarily travelers who left accounts based on their travels and whose accounts are generally considered to provide valuable historical and cultural information.
Thus we normally do not cite primary sources in their original language editions, if those languages are non-western. Lived there for several years and visited various Buddhist kingdoms in India, Persia and Afghanistan.
Suggestions for additions to the bibliography within the stated guidelines would be welcome. Daniel Waugh (The University of Washington) and Adela Lee (The Silkroad Foundation) -959 King Mu (Mu Wang),. On the returning journey, traveled to Kashmir, Kabul, passed the Pamirs and entered Xinjiang from Tashkurgan, then skirted around the Taklamakan desert from the northern towns, Kucha, Turfan and Hami.