Ludwig serial number dating guides
In a more general sense, any strategy designed to be implemented if a preferred method or system fails.
Also, to print the reverse side of a sheet that has already been printed on one side.
B&T products and services are listed and described in its trade catalogs. In budgeting, to keep expenditures in line with income, usually for the duration of a fixed accounting period.
By folding the leaves over each other close to the binding edge, the process also helps maintain the rounded shape of the spine, preventing the leaves from working their way forward.
Used since the 16th century, backing also enhances the openability of a volume by creating a slight crease in each leaf near the spine. In edition binding and library binding, backing is done by machine.
In illuminated manuscripts, the background in a miniature can be undecorated, diapered, or foliate, with or without gilding, as in the preceding examples from a Gospel book and a In bookbinding, the process of shaping a shoulder on each side of the binding edge of the text block after rounding, before lining is applied to the back.
In hand-binding, a backing hammer is used to bend the backs of the sewn sections from the center of the text block toward the front and back, forming ridges against which the boards of the cover rest.
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The sewn or binding edge of the gathered sections of a book to which the lining is applied.