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Such a division, scarcely possible in the period of persecution, is vouched for at the end of the fifth century by the signatures of Roman presbyters present at the Council of Rome in 499 under Pope Symmachus (cf. Thiel, Epistolæ Romanorum Pontificum genuinæ, Brunsberg, 1868, 651 sqq.). The pope also entrusts to them the administration of vacant abbeys and the filling of the vacant abbatial offices, but not without his foreknowledge. Laurence), and later on at the same churches raised (with St Mary Major) to patriarchal rank. In his quality of supervisor of ecclesiastical discipline in the city, and curator of the papal finances, he was, after the pope, the most important person in the Roman Church during the early Middle Ages. At present any form of publication suffices (Pius V, 29 Jan., 1571; Greg. Hence the cardinals are obliged to reside at Rome and cannot leave the Papal States without permission of the pope.

] titulos in urbe Româ divisit presbyteris …"; and again: "Hic [Dionysius, 259-268] presbyteris ecclesias dedit et cymeteria et paroccias diocesis constituit"; and elsewhere: "[Marcellus, 308-309] XXV titulos in urbe Româ constituit quasi diocesis propter baptismum et pænitentiam multorum qui convertebantur ex paganis et propter sepulturas martyrum" (op cit., ed. In other words, an ecclesiastical division of the city for various parochial purposes is attributed to popes of the second and third centuries. (Constitutum apocryphum Silvestri I, about the end of the fifth century, c. Item monasteria abbatibus viduata et abbatum nostra præcedente conscientia substitutionem his, qui sunt inter vel fuerint monasticæ professionis, disponenda comittimus" (Jaffé, op. The pope, he says, is like Moses in gentleness of government, while the administration of the cardinals recalls the paternal character of the seventy elders who sat as judges under the patriarch's control. The head of the cardinal-deacons was the archdeacon, also known as . Formerly the dignity of cardinal was acquired only after public proclamation and reception of the hat and ring.

The origin, development, and modifications of this office will be treated as follows: I. Hic statuit ut omni dominico die a septem episcopis cardinalibus ebdomadariis, qui in ecclesiâ Salvatoris observant, missarum sollemnia super altare beati Petri celebraretur et Gloria in excelsis Deo diceretur" (I, 478), i.e., the pope, as a diligent custodian of tradition ordered that every Sunday solemn Mass should be said on the altar of St. The public consistories are attended not only by the cardinals, but by the bishops, prelates, princes, and ambassadors to the papal court present in Rome. Secret consistories are now called more rarely, at intervals of several months, and deal with the few subjects or questions actually pending.

For the twelfth century we have the statement of Johannes Diaconus in the sixteenth chapter of his work "De ecclesiâ Lateranensi" (ed. Mabillon, in "Museum Italicum", Paris, 1724, II, 574): "Cardinales Sanctæ Mariæ Maioris sunt ii: SS. The "Liber Pontificalis" says of Stephen III (768-772): "Erat enim hisdem præfatus beatissimus præsul ecclesiæ traditionis observator. Semi-public consistories are a combination of a public and a secret consistory. Bangen, Die römische Kurie, ihre gegenwärtige Zusammensetzung und ihr Geschäftsgang, Münster, 1854, 75).

Please help support the mission of New Advent and get the full contents of this website as an instant download. They could, however, in case of a grave danger menacing the Church, provide by an absolute majority and secret vote for the necessary ways and means to meet the situation, issue urgent temporary ordinances for particular dioceses, and order the public recitation of prayers.

Duchesne, I, 249 sqq.): "Hic [Simplicius] constituit ad sanctum Petrum apostolum et ad sanctum Laurentium martyrem ebdomadias, ut presbyteri manerent, propter penitentes et baptismum: regio III ad sanctum Laurentium, regio prima ad sanctum Paulum, regio VI vel septima ad sanctum Petrum" (cf. In the "Commentarius electionis Gregorii VII" the electors are said to be "Romanæ ecclesiæ cardinales clerici, acoliti, subdiaconi, diaconi, presbyteri" (Jaffé, Bibliotheca Rer. In the course of time and according as the papal headship of the Church manifested itself more and more, the volume of ecclesiastical and temporal business increased greatly at Rome, in consequence of which the popes called in neighbouring bishops to represent them at episcopal functions and to aid them with their counsel. The publication of the names may, in given circumstances, be made at a much later date. It is the duty of the cardinals to assist the pope at the chief liturgical services known as de electione, I, 6; Council of Trent, Sess. Rom.", V, 604 sqq.; Innocent X, "Cum juxta", 19 Feb., 1646, in "Bullar. Similarly, they would lose all the benefices possessed by them (Council of Trent, Sess. The "suburbicarian" bishops, however, by ancient custom reside at Rome.

When two Catholics are marrying, the celebration will normally take place within a Mass. More →Nuptial Mass Readings The readings at a Catholic wedding liturgy are a proclamation of God’s Word and of the Church’s faith about marriage.

For this reason, they are limited to readings from the scr...

This is the sense of the "Liber Pontificalis" when it says (ed. Cardinal-subdeacons are often mentioned, and once even cardinal-acolytes. Creation of cardinals with publication of their names in his testament, but this creation never went into effect. from the end of the Western Schism, during which there were many cardinals created by the contending popes, it became customary for the pope to create cardinals without declaring their names (. Eubel, "Zur Kardinalsernennung des Dominicus Capranica", in "Röm. By virtue of canonical obedience the pope could compel an unwilling person to accept the cardinalitial dignity. But the cardinal must swear that he will defend conscientiously the papal Bulls concerning non-alienation of the possessions of the Roman Church, nepotism, and papal elections, likewise his own cardinalitial dignity. 2, X, de clerico non residente, III, 4; Leo X, "Supernæ", 5 May, 1514, § 28, in "Bullar. It is otherwise with foreign bishops created cardinals; they retain their dioceses and are not obliged to reside at Rome.

Moreover, in virtue of a papal provision as old as the reign of Pope Simplicius (468-83), these cardinal-priests were wont to conduct Divine service at the three principal cemetery churches (St. To each of these four churches were assigned seven cardinals; the latter were therefore twenty-eight in number. Since, according to the foregoing, the name of "cardinal" was linked with participation and co-operation in the papal Mass, or in ecclesiastical services at the principal papal churches of Rome it need not surprise us that, by reason of analogous participation in these services, other Roman ecclesiastics, from the deacons downwards, came to bear the title of cardinal. XV, "Decet", 12 March, 1621, in "Bullarium Romanum", XII, 663 sq.). Wahrmund, "Ueber die kirchliche Zulässigkeit der Rekusation der übertragenen Kardinalswürde", in "Archiv f. Kirchenrecht", LXVII, 3 sqq.) The oath taken by the cardinals is quite similar to that taken by bishops. The violation of this law entails grave penalties, even the loss of the cardinalitial dignity (C.

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Hinschius, "Das Kirchenrecht der Katholiken und Protestanten in Deutschland", Berlin, 1869, I, 318 sqq.). The "Liber Pontificalis" describes as follows this quasi-parochial system of ancient Rome: "Hic [Euaristus, 99-107? 2 (Concilium apocryphum Silvestri I, about the end of the fifth century), C. LXXXIX; Letter of Leo IX (1053) to Michael Cærularius in Jaffé, "Regesta Pontificum Romanorum", 2d ed. We read in this constitution "De jure cardinalium" as follows: "Itemque ex nostrâ præsenti constitutione his in mense vel eo amplius vel apud illum vel illum titulum sive apud illam vel illam diaconiam sive apud alias quasilibet ecclesias vos convenire mandamus, et ob vestram et inferiorum clericorum vitam et mores et qualitates et habitus vestium perscrutandum et qualiter quilibet præpositi se erga subditos habeant vel quod subditi suis præpositis non obediant et ad quæque illicita amputanda, clericorum quoque et laicorum querimonias, quæ ad nostrum judicium pertinent, quantum fieri potest definiendas, quippe cum sicut nostram mansuetudinem Moysi, ita et vestram paternitatem LXX seniorum, qui sub eodem causarum negotia diiudicabant, vicissitudinem gerere, certum habeamus. That is, the pope commands them to meet at least twice a month, in their own or other churches, to investigate their own lives and those of the clergy, the relations of superiors and inferiors, and in general to check all violations of the laws; also to settle, as far as is possible in the papal court, all conflicts between laymen and ecclesiastics. These eighteen deacons have each a church of Rome; they are also, adds Johannes Diaconus, canons of the Lateran Basilica. In all such cases the recipient must promise under oath, and under pain of nullity of his nomination, that within a year he will go personally to Rome for the further ceremonies above described, and to receive his "title" (Postquam verus, § 19).

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