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all the cartoonists that ever walked." In 1912, Ambrose Bierce proposed "an improvement in punctuation – the snigger point, or note of cachinnation: it is written thus ‿ and presents a smiling mouth.
It is to be appended, with the full stop, to every jocular or ironical sentence".
For example, WOBTAX and VICTORY both produced convincing smiley faces (where the overprinted characters produced the solid background, and pixels untouched by any of the characters produced the actual design).
This developed into a sophisticated set, particularly in combination with superscript and subscript.
The terms of the settlement were undisclosed, but Walmart continued to use its smiley design intermittently, and returned to using it in a major marketing role in 2016.
Starting circa 1972, on the PLATO system, emoticons and other decorative graphics were produced as ASCII art, particularly with overprinting: typing a character, backing up, then typing another character.
This smiley presumably inspired many later emoticons; the most basic graphic emoticon that depicts this is in fact a small yellow smiley face.
Nicolas developed hundreds of different emoticons, including 3D versions.
Emoticons have played a significant role in communication through technology, and some devices and applications have provided stylized pictures that do not use text punctuation.
They offer another range of "tone" and feeling through texting that portrays specific emotions through facial gestures while in the midst of text-based cyber communication.
Emoticons for a smiley face appear in the first documented use in digital form.
Certain complex character combinations can only be accomplished in double-byte languages, giving rise to especially complex forms, sometimes known by their romanized Japanese name of kaomoji.